In the mid-twentieth century members of the Prison Medical Reform Council published accounts of medical care in prisons including Holloway. Dame Kathleen Lonsdale, a British crystallographer, is an important figure in the history of women in science. For example, she was one of the two first women to be elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1945 and she was the first female president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. She was a pacifist and during the Second World War she was imprisoned for one month in Holloway for refusing to register for civil defence duties. In 1943 she recounted details of her time in the prison in a publication by the Prison Medical Reform Council. She spoke of the conditions facing women, including those related to medical care and the lack of adequate sanitary care provisions.